The pH scale

This is an introduction to the pH scale. Explore the relationship between pH and hydrogen ion (H⁺) concentration. The-pH-scale...

Reaction enthalpies

Enthalpy change For a reaction Bonds Know that Breaking bonds always requires energy (never releases energy) Forming bonds always releases energy (never requires energy) Exothermic and endothermic process Breaking bonds is always an endothermic process (whether...