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Naming Compounds

5. Memorizing the Names of Polyatomic Ions

Examples of polyatomic ions Generally, polyatomic ions have suffixes that end in "ite" or "ate" if they contain oxygen atoms. chloride hypochlorite chlorite chlorate perchlorate Note: Chloride shown above is not a polyatomic ion, it's a monoatomic ion consisting of...

4. Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

What are polyatomic ions? Ions are formed when neutral atoms gain or lose electrons. Similarly, a polyatomic ion is formed when a neutral molecule gains or loses electrons. A polyatomic ion is a charged group of atoms covalently bonded together. Majority of the...

1. Naming inorganic compounds

Identify if a compound is covalent or ionic You will need to know the periodic table You must be able to identify the non-metals, metals, and transition elements in the periodic table You must be able to categorize a compound as ionic or covalent formed from elements...

3. Learn the rules for ionic compounds

20% off CHEMISTRY TEACHING RESOURCES 100% money back guarantee Click here to find out >> How ionic compounds are formed An ionic compound involves the transfer of electrons between a metal and non-metal. Metals tend to lose electrons. Non-metals tend to gain...

2. Learn the rules for covalent compounds

20% off CHEMISTRY TEACHING RESOURCES 100% money back guarantee Click here to find out >> Introduction   Covalent compound A covalent compound involves the sharing of electrons between two non-metals. Rules What are the rules for naming covalent compounds?...

Chemical Kinetics

Catalyst and Activation Energy

Catalyst A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but it does not undergo a chemical reaction itself. The catalyst allows the reaction an alternative pathway to take place. The catalyst does not lower the activation energy of the reaction. Analogy

6. Reaction Coordinate Diagram

Given the following reaction, sketch a reaction coordinate graph. The reaction involves two steps, step 1 is the slowest step and step 2 is the fastest step. Indicate on the diagram the overall enthalpy change of the reaction, the reaction for the transitions states and intermediate states.

H2(g) + 2ICl(g) –> 2HCl(g) + I2(g)

4. Integrated Rate Laws

20% off CHEMISTRY TEACHING RESOURCES 100% money back guaranteeClick here to find out >> Overview The differential rate law relates the change in concentration of a reactant over a specified time. In other words, it tells us about the overall rate of a reaction...

3. Differential Rate Laws

Methods for determining order of reaction This section looks at how concentration affects reaction rate. You will learn how to determine the order of a reaction. Reactions are often categorized into first, second, third order, etc. and this information is useful for...

2. Rate of reaction

Measuring rate This section aims to cover the following topics: Define chemical reaction rate Define rate expression Relative rates of reaction and stoichiometry ratio Change in concentration over time The rate of a chemical reaction can be thought of as the speed at...

5. Mechanisms and Intermediates

Reaction mechanism Chemical reactions often take place in multiple steps and it's not always obvious from looking at the chemical equation. For example, the decomposition of ozone: From the equation, it appears that O₃ decomposes to O₂ in one step. In reality, it's...

1. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Energy Kinetics involves studying what makes chemical reactions happen. Every reaction that happens involves some energy exchange, whether it's slow reaction such as iron rusting, or a faster reaction, such as when a rocket burns fuel during take off.  Size of...

Bond Energy

Bond Energy and Bond Enthalpy

Bond Enthalpy Introduction In order to understand why breaking bonds requires energy (endothermic) and making bonds releases energy (exothermic), one must first understand the nature of a chemical bond and why it occurs in the first place. Remember that bonds are due...

Reaction enthalpies

Enthalpy change For a reaction Bonds Know that Breaking bonds always requires energy (never releases energy) Forming bonds always releases energy (never requires energy) Exothermic and endothermic process Breaking bonds is always an endothermic process (whether...

Acids and Bases

The pH scale

This is an introduction to the pH scale. Acids are chemical compounds that release hydrogen ions (H⁺) whenplaced in water. pH is a measure of how acidic a solution is. Concentration The concentration (M) of a solution is definedas the number of moles of solute divided...

Atomic Structure & Properties

How can you determine the number of neutrons in an atom?

How do we determine the number of neutrons in a given atom? First, let’s define some terms that you’ll need to be familiar with. • The atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus of that atom. • The mass number (also called the nucleon number) of...