Reaction Coordinate Diagram

Given the following reaction, sketch a reaction coordinate graph. The reaction involves two steps, step 1 is the slowest step and step 2 is the fastest step. Indicate on the diagram the overall enthalpy change of the reaction, the reaction for the transitions states and intermediate states.

H2(g) + 2ICl(g) –> 2HCl(g) + I2(g)

Integrated Rate Laws

Overview There are two types of rate laws that we need to learn for AP chemistry: (1) Differential rate law (2) Integrated rate law What is the difference between the differential rate law and integrated rate law? The differential rate law is actually a derivative of the integrated rate law. In experiments: Differential rate law […]

Differential Rate Laws

Methods for determining order of reaction This section looks at how concentration affects reaction rate. You will learn how to determine the order of a reaction. Reactions are often categorized into first, second, third order, etc. and this information is useful for showing the mathematical relationship between concentrations and rates. Rate laws may be written […]

Rate of reaction

Measuring rate This section aims to cover the following topics: Define chemical reaction rate Define rate expression Relative rates of reaction and stoichiometry ratio Change in concentration over time The rate of a chemical reaction can be thought of as the speed at which a chemical reaction happens and this can be expressed as the […]

Mechanisms and Intermediates

Reaction mechanism Chemical reactions often take place in multiple steps and it’s not always obvious from looking at the chemical equation. For example, the decomposition of ozone: From the equation, it appears that O₃ decomposes to O₂ in one step. In reality, it’s more likely to take place in the following sequence: The above shows […]

Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Energy Kinetics involves studying what makes chemical reactions happen. Every reaction that happens involves some energy exchange, whether it’s slow reaction such as iron rusting, or a faster reaction, such as when a rocket burns fuel during take off.  Size of particles Pictures in the slider: (CC BY-SA 3.0) | Link: | Author: Hans-Peter […]