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Naming Compounds

1. Naming inorganic compounds

First learn how to identify if a compound is covalent or ionic. You will need to know the periodic table You must be able to identify the non-metals, metals, and transition elements in the periodic table You must be able to categorize a compound as ionic or covalent...

2. Learn the rules for covalent compounds

A covalent compound involves the sharing of electrons between two non-metals. What are the rules for covalent compounds? Covalent compounds use prefixes - to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the compound The element that is on the left of the periodic...

3. Learn the rules for ionic compounds

How ionic compounds are formed An ionic compound involves the transfer of electrons between a metal and non-metal. Metals tend to lose electrons. Non-metals tend to gain electrons. The atom that loses electrons becomes a positively charged ion - called a cation. The...

4. Compounds with Polyatomic Ions

What are polyatomic ions? Ions are formed when neutral atoms gain or lose electrons. Similarly, a polyatomic ion is formed when a neutral molecule gains or loses electrons. A polyatomic ion is a charged group of atoms covalently bonded together. Majority of the...

5. Memorizing the names of Polyatomic ions

 Examples of polyatomic ions Generally, polyatomic ions have suffixes that end in "ite" or "ate" if they contain oxygen atoms.  Chloride shown below is not a polyatomic ion, it's a monoatomic ion consisting of only one atom. chloride hypochlorite chlorite chlorate...

Chemical Kinetics

Catalyst and Activation Energy

Catalyst A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but it does not undergo a chemical reaction itself. The catalyst allows the reaction an alternative pathway to take place. The catalyst does not lower the activation energy of the reaction....

1. Introduction to Chemical Kinetics

Energy Kinetics involves studying what makes chemical reactions happen. Every reaction that happens involves some energy exchange, whether it's slow reaction such as iron rusting, or a faster reaction, such as when a rocket burns fuel during take off.  Size of...

2. Rate of reaction

Measuring rate This section aims to cover the following topics: Define chemical reaction rate Define rate expression Relative rates of reaction and stoichiometry ratio Change in concentration over time The rate of a chemical reaction can be thought of as the speed at...

3. Differential Rate Laws

Methods for determining order of reaction This section looks at how concentration affects reaction rate. You will learn how to determine the order of a reaction. Reactions are often categorized into first, second, third order, etc. and this information is useful for...

4. Integrated Rate Laws

Overview The differential rate law relates the change in concentration of a reactant over a specified time. In other words, it tells us about the overall rate of a reaction from the beginning to the end of the reaction and the rate law also tells us how the speed of a...

5. Mechanisms and Intermediates

Reaction mechanism Chemical reactions often take place in multiple steps and it's not always obvious from looking at the chemical equation. For example, the decomposition of ozone: From the equation, it appears that O₃ decomposes to O₂ in one step. In reality, it's...

6. Reaction Coordinate Diagram

Given the following reaction, sketch a reaction coordinate graph. The reaction involves two steps, step 1 is the slowest step and step 2 is the fastest step. Indicate on the diagram the overall enthalpy change of the reaction, the reaction for the transitions states and intermediate states.

H2(g) + 2ICl(g) –> 2HCl(g) + I2(g)

Bond Energy

Bond Energy and Bond Enthalpy

Bond Enthalpy Introduction In order to understand why breaking bonds requires energy (endothermic) and making bonds releases energy (exothermic), one must first understand the nature of a chemical bond and why it occurs in the first place. Remember that bonds are due...

Reaction enthalpies

Enthalpy change For a reaction Bonds Know that Breaking bonds always requires energy (never releases energy) Forming bonds always releases energy (never requires energy) Exothermic and endothermic process Breaking bonds is always an endothermic process (whether...

Acids and Bases

The pH scale

This is an introduction to the pH scale. Explore the relationship between pH and hydrogen ion (H⁺) concentration. The-pH-scale The-pH-scale-2