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Learn Significant Figures Interactive

Significant Figures Significant figures is one of the most commonly confused concepts in science and many students lose marks as a result of using an inappropriate number of significant figures. Hopefully, this little course will help you understand what significant...

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Carbon to Carbon Covalent Bond – Single Bond

Hello! A few students have written to ask why carbon to carbon bonds just don't fulfill the octet rule? Here's a quick explanation to help you connect the dots. Two carbon atoms can form single, double or triple bonds to share their electrons. The picture above shows...

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Disulfur Dichloride S2Cl2 – dihedral angle

Disulfur Dichloride S2Cl2 (UK spelling is Disulphur Dichloride) The molecule is quite hard to draw because of the dihedral angle; the atoms are all joined up in a line but twisted. In chemistry, a dihedral angle is an angle between two intersecting planes, where each...

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How does Molarity Change with Temperature?

How does Molarity change with temperature? Example: 5 moles of solute in 1 liter of solution. The Molarity at the beginning is (5moles ÷ 1Liter) = 5 M. When the solution is warmed up and expanded by 1% say, to 1.01L, the new Molarity = (5moles ÷ 1.01Liter) = 4.95 M...

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Why wine turns sour when exposed to air?

If you're learning about alcohol in chemistry, have you ever wondered how wine left overnight exposed to air turns sour? Oxidation causes wine to turn sour Wine consists of an alcohol group called ethanol. Ethanol is an organic compound and the formula is C2H5OH....

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How Lithium reacts in water

This reaction is similar to sodium and water, but lithium reacts more slowly than sodium. Lithium belongs to group 1 elements in the periodic table. Group 1 elements are alkali metals that carry one valence electron in the outermost shell. Group 1 elements are highly...

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What is vapor pressure

What is vapor pressure? Water always evaporates no matter what the temperature or atmospheric pressure is. Even in the coldest of winter, snow and ice can evaporate by a process called sublimation. They can turn straight into vapor (the gaseous stage) without melting....

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Na + H2O Sodium and Water reacts to form a hydroxide

Sodium reacts with water to produce sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas Remember: An ion is an atom or molecule that is positively or negatively charged due to loss or gain of electron(s). Valence electrons are electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. The rule of...

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Why is water a polar molecule and also a bent molecule?

Why is water a polar molecule? In this video, we'll explain simply why a water molecule is polar and it also has a bent shape. Oxygen combines with 2 hydrogens in order to make 1 water molecule. A water molecule, on the whole, is neutral. However, the electrons are...

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Why are valence electrons important?

Valence electrons are electrons located furthest away from the nucleus of an atom. Why are valence electrons important? Valence electrons are very important because they determine the bonding characteristics of an atom. The bonding characteristics of an...

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The difference between mass and weight

What's the difference between mass and weight? There's a big difference between mass and weight. Mass refers to the amount of matter in a substance, Weight is a measure of how the force of gravity acts on the mass. An object weighs less on the moon than on earth...

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Differentiating between strong and weak acids

Strong acids versus weak acids How do you describe a strong acid from a weak acid chemically? Strong acids are acids that are completely or nearly 100% ionized in their solutions. It means nearly or all the molecules you put in the solution are completely broken into...

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Does pressure increase with mass?

  The ideal gas law states that PV = nRT The ideal gas law describes the relationship between pressure, volume, temperature and number of particles. Therefore, regardless of the type of gas, the pressure is always going to be the same if the volume, temperature &...

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Introduction to Alkenes Organic Chemistry

What are alkenes? Alkenes are hydrocarbons with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bonding. Examples of alkenes (note the double bonds) The double bonds of a hydrocarbon can exist in different position Below is the first position double bonding Below are alkenes...

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Introduction to Alkanes Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is definitely one of the toughest subjects! If you have any experiences to share how you overcome your study challenges (doesn't have to be organic chemistry) please feel free to comment below! #chemistry #ilovescience #studying #organicchemistry...

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Is work done carrying an object through a distance?

What is the definition of work done in physics and chemistry? Work done is an abstract concept You may hear your dad say he's going to work but according to the law of physics, your dad may not be doing any work at all! The definition says work is equal to force...

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What is enthalpy change?

What is enthalpy change? The 1st Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can certainly be transferred from one area to another or converted from one form to another. Enthalpy change is a preferred expression given to heat...

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Why does sodium explode in water?

What causes sodium to explode in water? Happy Valentine's Day! Here's a quick summary of the romantic relationship between sodium and water... Sodium is an alkali metal which is very reactive because it has an unstable electron configuration. Atoms like to fulfil the...

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What is atmospheric pressure and how do you measure it ?

What is atmospheric pressure and do you measure it? The earth's atmosphere is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and traces of other gases. Although you don't really feel it, air exerts a pressure on everything. Each molecule of air exerts a pressure...

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How many valence electrons are in each group?

How to determine the number of valence electrons in an element? Valence electrons are electrons located in the outermost shell of an atom. Valence electrons are the most important electrons because they are the electrons involved in chemical reactions. The easiest way...

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Why does ice float on water?

Why does ice float on water? Water is a strange liquid that follows its own physics! Rather than contracting when cooled, water expands when it freezes and takes up more space. As a solid, water floats on its liquid state. How does it do that? The reason for this...

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Why are moles so confusing?

Why is the mole concept so confusing? The mole concept has been recognized as one of the most difficult topics to teach and learn. This is due to its abstract, theoretical nature. How do you measure atoms and molecules? In baking, you can easily measure the amount of...

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What forms when water dissociates?

What forms when water dissociates? A water molecule is made of 1 oxygen and 2 hydrogen atoms The atoms are covalently bonded, they share electrons. Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen The electrons are drawn towards the oxygen atoms When water dissociates (or...

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Open and Closed Isolated Systems

Want to learn chemistry faster? Sign up to get full access to our concept videos. A system refers to a part of the universe being studied. You can define any areas or parts of the universe as a system. A system can be as large as the rain forest in the Amazon or as...

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What is dissociation of water?

What is dissociation of Water The word dissociates mean break apart the bond. When water dissociates, one of the hydrogen atoms leaves the water molecule. While doing so, it also leaves behind an electron but takes the proton with it. So now, water H2O becomes a...

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State Function in Chemistry

Want more videos and illustrations? Come and master chemistry through visual learning techniques. [LEARN MORE...] What's a state function in chemistry?   "If you don't rely on the path – it's a STATE FUNCTION." State functions depend on three things: the property, the...

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The difference between orbits and orbitals

Don't get confused between orbits and orbitals - they mean two very different things when it comes to electron theory. Orbits An orbit is a well-defined circular path. Electrons don't travel in orbits as shown in Bohr model. It is used by Bohr model to describe...

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Erwin Schrödinger Vs the Bohr Model – Electron Cloud

Viziscience is a visual learning platform for mastering chemistry concepts for high school and above Find out more Bohr Vs Schrondinger Electron Model from Viziscience on Vimeo. Electrons don't travel in a fixed path Contrary to common assumption, electrons don't...

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